is a Spanish-speaking nation on the northern coast of South
America. The leader of Venezuela from 1999-2013 was Hugo
Chavez, a self-styled Socialist who allied Venezuela to Cuba
and was proclaimed foe of the United States and world
capitalism. Chavez engaged in a political and diplomatic
conflict with Venezuela's neighbor, Colombia for several years.
Following Chavez's death in 2013, Nicolas Maduro became
president, continueing the socialist agenda. The nation has
been rocked by protests and a prolonged political and economic
crisis for the past several years.
Below is a list of
wars and conflicts involving Venezuela.
War of Independence(1811-1823)--After a long conflict, involving several
campaigns, battles between competing Venezuelan forces, and
against Spanish forces, independence from Spain was achieved.
Venezuela became a part of the new nation of Gran Colombia
until 1831, when Gran Colombia dissolved into the separate
nations of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela.
Revolt(1848-1849)-Revolt by Jose Antonio Paez, the leader of
the Conservative Party, rebelled against his erstwhile friend
and ally, President Jose Tadeo Monagas when the new president
appointed members of the Liberal Party to his governement. Paez
was defeated and fled into exile.
war between Venezuela's Conservative Party and the Liberal
Party. The Federal War is also known as the Great
War or the Five Year War. This war began
with the overthow of the Monagas brothers by their Liberal and
Conservative opponents, who then began fighting among
themselves. the war ended in a Liberal victory.
Conservative revolution led by Conservative leader Jose Tadeo
Monagas overthrew the Liberal regime of President Juan
Civil War (1868-1870)--Civil
conflict between the Conservatives and Liberals. The Liberals
won this time.
Boundary Dispute (1895-1896)--A
border dispute over the boundary separating Venezuela from
British Guyana nearly caused war between the United States and
Britain. The U.S. supported Venezuela in the
Civil War (1899-1902)--Civil
war between Venezuela's Liberal and Conservative factions. Won
by Conservative "Blue" leader Cipriano Castro.
German, and Italian warships blockaded Venezuelan ports in an
attempt to force payment of Venezuelan international debts.
This was a common tactic by rich European nations to force
payment by poorer nations when they had trouble paying
in World War Two (Feb-Sept, 1945)-Venezuela, though pro-American,
remained neutral during most of World War Two, primarily to not
give the Germans an excuse to attack the Venezuelan oil
industry. When the war began in 1939, Venezuela was the world's
leading producer of oil. Venezuela finally declared war on the
Axis powers in February of 1945. The Venezuelan military did
not enter combat during the war.
Military Revolt(Oct. 18, 1945)-A military coup brought a Liberal
government into power.
Military Revolt(Nov. 24, 1948)-A military coup led by Colonel Carlos
Delgado Chalbaud, overthrew the Liberal governement of the
Acción Democrática (AD) political party and
restored Conservative rule. What followed was the establishment
of a repressive military dictatorship.
Liberal Revolt(Oct. 13, 1951)-Attempted rebellion by the Acción
Democrática (AD), the party of the elected government
overthrown by the military junta in November of
Military Revolt(Jan. 1-23, 1958)-A military rebellion ousted
dictatorial President Marcos Perez Jimenez. Jimenez fled the
country due to the revolt which cost 300 lives and left 1,000
Communist Insurgency(1960-1965)-Low-level Commuist insurgency against the
Military Uprising(June 26, 1961)-A militry revolt against the government
Military Uprising(May 4-5, 1962)-A militry revolt against the government
Military Uprising(June 4, 1962)-A militry revolt against the government
Military Coup Attempt(February, 1992)-A militry revolt led by military
officer Hugo Chavez against the government failed.
Military Coup Attempt(November, 1992)-A militry revolt against the government
Coup Attempt(April, 2002)-An attempted coup against President Hugo
Political Conflict (2014-Present)-Maduro's continued
socialist economic policies provoked widespread protests,
resulting in civilian deaths. Since 2015, nearly 2 million
people have fled Venezuela.
In the 2018 presidential election, the
incumbent Maduro won with 67.8% of the vote. Several foreign
governments (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Brazil, Canada,
Germany, France and the United States), along with the
Venezuelan oppositon, claimed the results were fraudulent, and
challenged legitimacy of the Maduro presidency. The opposition
claimed that Juan Guaidó was the legitimate president.
Maduro's foreign allies, including Cuba, China, Russia, Turkey,
and Iran continue to recognize Maduro as president. In
December, 2018, Russia sent several long-range bombers to visit
Venezuela, amid mutterings by the Trump Administration about
the possibility of American military intervention.
In January 2019 the Permanent
Council of the Organization of American States (OAS) approved a
resolution "to not recognize the legitimacy of Nicolas
Maduro’s new term. The United States and several other
nations formally recognized Juan Guaidó as the President
of Venezuela. American military planes brought food and medical
supplies to the Colombian-Venezuelan border region while
Venezuela continued to keep the border closed.